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Историческое развитие культуры(Романов В.Н) стр.135

As a typological category, "theoretical" culture should relate not to the particular ideas of its practitioners but to their evolving abstractions superimposed on the psychological fields of situational actuality. In general sociological terms, it is not at all important which particular categorial system was shaping up in the individual mind. Appreciating the concrete-historical laws of development would, however, require familiarity with the contents of culture.

Textual objectivizing of any type of behaviour invariably led to the erosion of the sympractical aspect of culture. Importantly, in ancient times far from all areas of an individual's life came to be described. In most cases, an incipient "theoretical" culture initially focused on just a few areas of social life. What this meant was that the transition to categorial thinking recasting the whole nature of man made use of texts whose range of subjects was very limited. The result was a few self-contained worldviews which, as the "theoretical" culture was reaching into other aspects of individual behaviour, came to mold a terminologically non-conflicting description of all human values. In ancient India these worldviews came to be rooted in the idea of sacrifice.

The study is principally concerned with the extensive evolution of ancient Indian "theoretical" culture; the goal is to present it as a ritualistic perspective reaching, in varying degree, into new areas of individual behaviour. Under scrutiny, though, are broader implications for Indian culture of the textual objectivizing of ritual behavior. The point is that in explicitly setting the individual in opposition to his/her behavior, this objectivizing set the stage for treating it consciously, and, within limits, arbitrarily. Sympractical thought was thus increasingly confronted with a choice situation thoroughly alien to it — adopting this mode of behaviour or not. This optional dimension would generate, much at the same time, both the orthodox ethical concepts of the upani-shads upholding the traditional attitudes, and non-orthodox teachings like Buddhism and Jainism taking the negative alternative and dismissing the authority of Vedas. The conflict apparently ran to the heart of a spiritual crisis which beset India during the older upanishads and academically described as an essentially spontaneous release of the ancient Indian spirit from the "bonds of ritualism". What happened next was a diversifying culture shaping up as alternative modes of behaviour within a uniform sacrificial paradigm. The unorthodox dissenting trends retained many features of the preceding ritualistic tradition. Faced with problems deriving from the textual objectivizing of ritual, they were fashioned in contradistinction to the established paradigm, following the rule of contraries as it were.

Turning to the Russian culture of the 19th century, the author encounters historical parallels when a paradigm essentially modifies within a full-blown "theoretical" culture. Significantly, the period witnessed the rise of a contraversial "narodnik" epis-tcm, as the nihilist mode of behaviour of the time was being tex-tually objectivized. The cognitive patterns reproduced by the then Russian culture revealed their distinctive dialogic thrust. The culture thus originated an innovative dialogic appreciation of humanitarian experience, something the author has been preoccupied with throughout the study.

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Предисловие..............................................3

Часть I. Типология первобытной и древней культуры...... 5

Введение. О деятельностном подходе к изучению культуры . . 5

Глава 1. Типология первобытной культуры..................11

Глава 2. Типология древней культуры. Культура древней Индии 65

Вместо заключения: культура древней Греции................101

Часть II. Исследование культуры и культура исследователя. Методологический аспект....................119

Введение. О диалогической природе гуманитарного знания ... 119

Глава 1. Предыстория диалогической традиции в русской культуре 126

Глава 2. Русская культура XIX в. Формирование дналогизма . . 140

Послесловие. Перспективы изучения советской культуры .... 171

Список литературы.................... 178

Список сокращений........................................189

Summary........................ 190

Научное издание

Романов Владимир Николаевич

ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЕ РАЗВИТИЕ КУЛЬТУРЫ Проблемы типологии

Утверждено к печати Институтом востоковедения Академии наук СССР

Заведующий редакцией С. С. Цельникер. Редактор И. Б. Кондырева. Младший редактор п. Л. Петрова. Художник В. Н. Забайров. Художественный редактор Э. Л. Эрман. Технический редактор В. П. Стукоенина. Корректор В. К. Кшеткови.

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